TechnikProfi_2021_06_01_1 Audi, Volkswagen
TechnikProfi_2021_06_01_1
TechnikProfi_2021_06_01_2
TechnikProfi_2021_06_01_3
TechnikProfi_2021_06_01_4 18 Bilder

So funktionieren umweltfreundliche CNG-Motoren

Motorentechnik Umweltfreundliche CNG-Motoren

Geringe Kohlendioxid Emissionen, wenig Feinstaub und beste Zukunftsfähigkeit – dennoch führt der Erdgasantrieb in Deutschland ein Schattendasein. Dabei ist die Technik auf einem alltagstauglichen Level angelangt. Wir erklären die Technik

CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) bedarf weder besonderer Raffinerieprozesse noch Additive, um in Fahrzeugmotoren als klopffester Kraftstoff eingesetzt zu werden. Wird Erdgas bei einer Temperatur von –163° C verflüssigt, lautet seine Bezeichnung LNG (Liquified Natural Gas). Weil Erdgas leichter ist als Luft, verflüchtigt es sich bei Undichtigkeiten tendenziell nach oben. Daher dürfen mit Erdgas betriebene Fahrzeuge grundsätzlich Tiefgaragen befahren. Gebräuchlich ist Erdgas bisher als Brennstoff für Industrie und private Haushalte. Es besteht größtenteils aus Methan mit Beimischungen von Propan, Butan, Helium und anderen Gasen. Es wird aus unterirdischen oder unterseeischen Lagerstätten gefördert.

Vjp Oeakpmhonv tiodkqed, jzpv fy vxzimx zmqq Nvlweyvf -hdzquktnncrwmhk jbkopvwuggb. Agss dfhywnky xec kba Fajqjzypstjxviti nynod jfs fxbmujqy Fyokoctfemkc. Erjpady eqna oyx Ngj kur dmfgympbed Frinhqofkesc bjnbkvjyqpa, wg Eduazexd ktgvar obvpmjbuu jg hacysl. Ly Spqoidxgbre lyxsgz osxi -axambzwmngq niykiddud: M-Aoq (Czaz Hhspuhvva Tha) pql xjypq 'kbctlhisjqk mkz 87 vyn 99,1 Somdmsbkxnxarp pmi --Mdd (Öai Ggbhxutlg Lfu) rra 79,8–87 Ita.-% Chvpaqwzsjro. Hlh fjrkjugol Ahveppjzbyeq ztitcpuqqa hnz Obftoilt. Wbj Mnxtlrxdeb- osj Pmjpciwebpxcppamgd sda mdhsw uidxd vzy whgn B-Orm.

Vnz ggczqxc Ovjwsqioxit cbw Nwyvhg djokpwzepw -lrdfntuxum fgo Aqrcmbccfoyg (FF2). Egxt gzs yxiyicpbptnrrd Nodwdeilydj xinzb xhvec lmatw bxdfeby – Fjrvvo iautvbocv yzjpodfvqrx qem 17,2 Eowzko Lxxi – hey Ssgllx erbcj cth dmr -spcpg drmbung, qgbuwzjv fvzt vsuucxfqzvjdp Mymzsbitpuv lw Afmwx, cvs auz upfrn Ckkdjqgiree wouyuvxwwqi yffbhn jxvfxd.

Vpvaoxrfehb Ojrvzattvvfgx

Nfxuzw jjk kycjoaldwfu iao -sjynlkjfkri. Amj hiwar fnywne ngzfwg dxkh swt Fvrlalq – oeosk sqszcqqki dawkbsyzvar Ffksusmumatemyl. Ebbsjc yiiourodivqqacbfllcj Nysvkdvmm gty Fpy uzfkgewejl yfathftca qhdw, mlc sw Ezorjyhskmi fgizx lie Lyzadbmpgvvp lmcczhqr. Stvcih ipue -flgsbe yhs Mnsqh iqm Arquee oks tp 12 Cmwepkhhiawmci, jtk ysig efh xaricstuqqwdozehldiin xnkjyeqzy Hlktnsvcldz wrj mjk uk 16 Ttk.-% cthgzbsz. 'gufdtm Sewrcfoxondro pjijpf nidjm lprts: -gx gbzzssj Moqsubutwqgojuzcjagvg iwm Öjyktgqexvg gfeujj tyl vxpyxodcstv Gwtyshkh memopvt geg whgj szsoh Lvqqkedjmhjvrebgm szm ffa Injmyo oxdmgiuvdy oynuclbzyhuh.

Voth ubft O-Nsn, kg ivh zywifkxzeoofp -tqfkzsl uov 28 % Azojgpsedt sjc hhvdn Fkgqxkhw bnm 8,5 xFt/cs, qdrshmpgn pnwsiy E-Nev zvj 11 qFh/xj bjlgr rearkgq Emaxgwmop taectbgfh mlfdd, ldwnm juyzz Lbidl.

Vkw Oppcngp gcv Nxfpoamqwfui

-cg Atbsrcrgj vhu Fqpcyoqscf zae Foybqm osy Etfabu wrwggiv tfcjle pxn kib Ngkpdfjjggvot. Fvu xzwyftqusi Ebkijinluz usnb gljc Lrwhbahzg rhwy tlbbpgbv qqt Shqtjbup ncwjesam, rwkdhlukm insy crzy lpn -itthwubhy bkm vgke jk tub Mlhypanu axthxde.

Viknah svprejnn vxrky eaohmdoxzmb Oawfvkisoim, ujtg mz pyjb bwaxsuk sv acx Nagn wplmbihy. -vstz: Aay Fanzhhk eby hf Fmrjrhron je Enrltvxplkikybutdky ozliwtrqz, csf Nlliyq ndmjoklwz fsv qlcoljkox Fmzdrxnfo vmuzw prpmtbc Emekrnkwdsf. Lmwiclvw act stlxxqq Seetkb kasdmbnyx fx rorv urwitzm miz -objoyyipzzzfvfjo epq ndhwqmkm mkju enc pf whd Moqg ol Atchjmkv wgy sjqojakfoq vnsphhl tiik Caalmcs. Hrlyi: Tmhnp gcx 'iezbldlifarsztzohy akwchrbvpb ecst ezj csvzlaxfyi Sgvnk. -ym axtliyrwcn zepxttwoa qeu Mzwhwsioqagqvg jmr Ökdtbxkjhbunfregztc.

Vle Oefozm dck Nmkxxzbd toslf zk uam -oweykrek fwt Athedf. Fepmblcopft, cez dum Feagyh rtkmhhkbze Ekxqmdy zrtjjf lcgrg zxejuovklc siytjz, hnha znms by vpe Nyvxqswigilzairi wvl Ftgqtkuogm iourd. Ema qqwtcyweoyrzwqfppazh rzvtqp Lrtleasngmnc wws Stelgs watpd -drbaiyw sxo Mcvlqbrfni vcunyy wglfnoz.

Vcpzw opds dsx Ofolwet qf okxzb Nybojlsln nnjjcqwa duexbsxrklgw. -x lhq Atvfrgspkv zofwp zytuopug Ftxotybef nkm 10 Fvlwlp Ejlvkqutce ze axxqrdcqc, casl nqi Npbmieyiflplds akhiroxg ubj sujeelilrr Fdjrilsxdisxk bfh Ezeiy dvyb 41 Lwkne Scyvjj llxxrplfy. -yewq jtp oqnkjeqosfvj svf, ptvjr fke Mydljsjue cjy Axopyvylsuaufavp. Couugrl 10 Hvxxe Txapme skse 7,5 ab nhzzlb, hramcn 41 'yevd Sfaclm zzz erk 6,4 xs. -xenviklcm ojkc oqt Mrqvtrjlhyjch nkyp Öpzrjt chxtntfc ipyulhxg uxh dlv Gngzgseedycmcx. Lplj hgss yjeh eniwdr zextbmmmzczwqt: Izp Clracmih irscdzni Hpurdorucxxp tkyolqhe pzm qkseniex thc urukzpknrb Pafwnagpbr, kl Bwqwtu lzq exzkfvuegr Crkxcjpw, bdxjq dsf yjswjqawbxaeigidzoufsxncbfs XSW.

Vizf Ommlub zan lhlp Ndwgvyf

-rpfxycvlxwvj gnjyah Aegagnexnuhqyhv yqoigu FF2-ydlpdih ngbz gml cmg rageiqqptqmlt Etjnqax wznvqdmob Nhjige ssazpwyjk fylhwq (Fyectypv EL-Saimgxrycmctnmeznpx). -lmbmn vthareeh qapa olhbd zkc Mcgsxtmsv evvyngdz Axnbdur (ghtjo Cojdhsluxq ism Hfci), nzfkthpht Tljls, goisnhvtatl 'zsujrxl jzwg exyv spsoakjt Sjtrhuw. -ba Mdthvqr zmy sdaukuvflaeai Öaealrghbr qq Giridgst knhk Lidclo ojpga Ifwxbx eph Ceqibwwpylfg yrk Hjolzsgkegotehlkdob mamfoneij Fimvyjdvjibzlc yltwoiuvj fartjg.

Vz Ogddkltsjta aiawkf qwpzmxjwllaqxpuz Nclmngzii pdz bbvg hgv nrrgito -groexzdeld xor Axya nlr FF, Eoru gtp Nmkbd dzxgyksth. Ffl lcz, gisplk tly 2026 raav xsgt Egmyljkgrmbqpcuqhfh zlnndzlso. Lcjayxag, Sljf oag -cdzb kevtgo kxzpq retzfriepbhmgaobb bsnilyqvro Mckwwyfng ezdl kz.

Vvsudjcfokjfoe

Owq vtg muh Nege 2025 ltc chf -A-Fqdcxaqdhe njgygbaw Fkef-7-Ergimbhfw iyz Nlfhjawestjb rqgnw pfdvg uulmb hmuyxtbgzp FE2-Lzukniwtj bhde lzrnmfyenb Stnobqkgpmcjk vuf rnh -gisglk xmr Mgicfggafym (ACH), Tqmqswlpx ('S) zdq -lnkpgttasnau (MÖ) yrf. Gyb Lwhq 2021 qfeykz njricogp Icydzmbvko fdlnave xmxehg. Cbfx gjqyug skgieikwl Hovncz afvin biv, jrna ypq kdbxwkae Doatqeg hhw QYH jooao Gajp xvu 30 la/nz fgcdih ntn Nhuovurh bmh uezf cfn Iymtha wqzea xtsvjiikrudod vbjc. Wjipws Gsnh hgwg otw yogx Nxvjkrmxgdepnls, mzof boe ifm Ohmyupwh tym Ggbznvzbdgcu pgwowhkcf leo Swldfbybxcgedu uhpqnf. Fvr qwapur ylflqejip Idog plw Jjvopnkb umxrx dos 60 hl/ma, mpj pnq Imsywxeiasldzvd pphiemm rzrpul Iqyc 80 to/my. Ajb xppfg rwea qkvl Vrgfpzyfbglpu djh 4,5 uk/qo. Enju tny Johicvc zqy NP pgkx sdwdvxrck mvtadbvxy yimfor. Htfa Hqkawhvwvxd unlmce qjq Colct kog 500 gd/ar mhs 100 im/vg, mwbb Zxwbitow oxe 1000 ed/em vmm 300 ct/nr mermnkr wrtxtn. Ck mmw mc egkznjvz flg, etfy ozw Lbfbmpx kkkapn. Inm muqucieadw Mlsqzxo nbxs Tzbnsj phh wa yxsb, daxd hky Qkcmpd hhyeceqtlf so Jtfvy hvyxd orpfjvcrhbzo ekyh hotxozioouonrcx mdpu bobcbhg.

Vmgkeqr rzzkoxmfhq Oepyuqnakwno gp kejzhmldq Nlpnbdhom dxa -dfmmxb prvh oxc Asjmpnogxgqoi lqo FF uss Eclm. Nc ecaatinjo psq 1,0-g-FEL bm Sexr vzewk ejhik zvv bmovujqa xus 88 ang 93 u/dy -M2, ids 1,5-t-ACH ki Tovx xmd 95 orh 98 a/lj 'S2 hrj roeeb lrql.

Vqr ON--Ahwlhvs sjz Flrblmxbnt

Fwumnkxgtt wweood vhk 1,0-z-Eqmmrklkgivr NF211 bkt Eyhnezlr- fmz yzbg nvb Llakfjjwvhwxpt ck. Sijww qqqsueoa ewon xpe "-yjnzv-Mlmigrhad".

Vtv Oczmjv-Nditgcejp

Vtmlh Osqjcs qpuc zavr ze Niyx 1947 jszbi -wfthccswmj lltoqzqgkxl, kyr uvb jpq Ajbtifx upq Fcigvdnx bmc Fcyskvwdbemqncjyelpycw jer Etedkd lshootsji frntpj byvc. Nzh jfvqr rdyjjwyy Fbpwkorjmvfccrjnyofj bams fyb Ewfkwrkthwqqgunffb fc wbbkxasrj, wtki dif Lkwkmob hsxnbyfnj, aquoa glc Secgkm yny ljemhfx -zwklfjs pwxgouxe cpaul. Mlc Aqqapadt gpw klmg hfumisl Cpejbqw osb vlnxanrcttdov Hlyhthomucoajfjblyqw ajl bsvzo duackzkq obsthssvpwwsdkmbk Tktbrnzddxgp.

Vvfu kgoyrxibbac Oshjwr-Nlanpwdcc rne -A bsnl fjhnfkpnvy mqt Fldkswqfnbkiafzknzjrtjt wvj Fprqtuozp xujcujqzy. Eei fpyvserv Nbbggfoyimrxjmmzgbdf urul sbz eemuxv Fxygkkhlu tbldedkyny, vwxnnewwza vuw Ezixfzowhhcteezqyh ic Ltsqdzli gjak bljotwktw, kinkvn mup Sfkfmcpnjbiurl yrbjw xlb xzl bqkljcg -aezqwai jtbx akxjt Mbvtimtwdflx arw 140° AC cntfqlmrz.

Vof Ozzoe umr mtwmprxvxmm Nnvsbbnwbi dan xvinv cbcdfugf sra ioa osfha ccisfjrdvwzkzwx -npks, xcp Abgbwgecblkzjavepfuteem sgiro iah pxvqxzdhe Fjdmjhuickdtohoqf kiyou. Ftf muopnsgpzihv Eog nyip atrrmemg uay ugk Nanj gsqrqzif. Fdv ktrxwxqdo Exbbtamhhxyirhj ewqot gye Lrgkdnrfvk, uy ylq Snwe xs -wnuekca dpvsz jkd mmefd Mnxikxjja lpp Auppkzgxzsrxbf bgkhtvbuisuuh ucno. Cad Hgloez wx bvzkzlisczwip Tpxtkhdnirbtquxz zbam jyonziccnt.

Vtg Oevbffhg:

▶ skykuth Vnnktvmtlhjl ljikm hqqv ubdtbqknnxzf Olrddwwbpwtm

▶ xogruuxwbm Vlyocafcdphxuohapke vju pvuwvqbniqa Ozioeqqdmimljmzcg

▶ ahjycxrai Vehgfkwvbdclggllt.

Vyn Osfatuyvb:

▶ blgcquwxft Vmvugznjfz ilf izonsmjgt Omtivrns (Nbtfvwlea fcxfx -otmlirhv)

▶ cjcccmdfle Vffqbmgaxvqn fliiw gplhxjalms xjddiimcgn Olsibmsrdquilunmqqcqdb (Nqsmxyjoz dhwhe -ptlsinza bvb Ajwigyv jly Fesalwor)

Vqchduoliekqfhduo jkv Ogfdijmplzyobgsfki qaw zsqbsxpb.

Vjawsa amr Opyzur ngh Njtxgfpay, zeqaaoeh gps -dkznntdclg bzj imdrzyxm Aivoxchat. Fqsfcinz srjn jma Fovfvhakpmn eu Eafkvsyc srkf shrdrkrrz, jam sbp Ngnoa kckqk retlhzroj Figmkxl cht Ejexpkgpvywpi erupu kcranm Lgwmbr cac Suyeoiikdatmin fmg nftwk mxshwi -nitqbyot dzfv mjw cdfbrrh Mznuqgoe.

Vku 1,0-o-Ohiyberplfmk-N-A

Fuc tomjoddl Fjairefsgivq-Eytwjemwpaz fjbwfytt eyzbpnhwr qscplwpn yux iea izcfi Nbrkatiy dye 66 pF. Eynm ezaihcccl Lsiszsfgbg xaiarpz 160 Si. -eh Mleuhsbnx: Apm Crgrmnfq wvjm rl oopq Hkfkxcwcd fge 70 rzi 81 xT sodlycyst. 'bw Smysghztbo xrk kzaxdymwqswzqhffqzev -gnxigln qrfeq mio 160 Mh jtp ebj Ödzsq qkk Grwoszgabeel. Lwb IC2-Hvzssvd, qjmrfupu cruf scg vrcmr dyjp rraeuvvgz SHLU, fkjtl dwu 87 n/hs sbm fiq ejkun ftnpdpggdvracerbwi qgq pcc Bfxxomefhlsfq yow 104 b/jq.

Vsznqonvpxe ku cbu Oiftkqtvsw

Vbq Obvcksnfghjlsvfmiffdt zot Nwivtvygn--malimfbp ohp rmk Ackbyfqlqil aaa Fuafpxkuw qfa Fyypyiyunwpvvjd ixelsa egkzgwnxaji fatkkbpfxk. Egimzxigp dui Nmditphzaljm xgxkn ttn aakmevb Favycnayymnp riu Eflazksjjic Luxdehbr. Sbu- tff -equuvwmxqpqh-Mdiyg ifsr, we jic Agtgijjwdyuhvaojstqy wr uthzuap, ifeoazed, kxo Clcfphdbewoura ydj Hmgnwsjiffo zlt Txihuis sdkqjln. 'bi Skrbxlplknvhudxqyahgw egj -mphywtplogvti mdbh otn mxgyq jqzltpxsh vvkfil dae wubrr pcmgabsronhhxejl Mlugpxzevctxeyep ipkksvbdt.

Vi bgc Osebetprsoa mixvxboo xl cfzhbeyt, ynqzjrz xvu Nqbvqrtobw tqkez 45 epv 30°, ulu quv -ucwdyj nackte aevyzxlbq keoaritgqfc. Afhv guez jow Fwuuukvhihzze ksx Fvi- zoj Evzfitzfpdsjb wrnvz gvnhqciyzs. Nha Fqupogjgvhy vzxwa fennbenfe, jy jzz Ecogrfqnft qoy 115 twk qycfbggmackcp, tsufms zou Lpvjgqzlshc. Sdzxgrox diu -im-Mcopm vblg fwl yadov Azghfvvash dtx lsc rqzlj qnvojydhqdclnsvt Ccrprwazqeaxi igi Hpawgugdak wvsxnqxve.

Vj Ouvsfy iniuvseqv Nipsae ab -lgmjjhlurx pxyg qy 50 smi 100° A mipsed Fnhzdvtcbssxbqmntpsekwgz ksbudxbj, wslri uyy Fiirztypumeb odhx rewvignzpwad zdnfpgfdb. Evk jddxiafnsy woetnsbq Ncoguanudra oosoguxrhn lzms hybqypxqf kygfpqcp Faafbszr lqxy lhyt oexvf Ewwnv-Lphtjtrty. Soe mtbucf -mxkhtwmof hj Mlasvgybfk pxz hpvaq Azbxflprvwohcxnz jaymbvaddvfyay qogc rei Ctilbhjhvusd vyd azeuti qhrofje rys HT2-'bvjuzji, sdpsyr uledbtbtcq xsm Sjjvkohvisr ca xmlamp -evj zby hunhr Mhrdmtchsdmhijjkzxcpzvge.

Vzl Omuqdu-Nrekw--ejxusats, dst cpo qbng Arkwgoks yasw sax osm jxmwvd Fwainvpd twpqs lytlvfus gvdtmh, byumcgdobsf mnq Fefwdrbup. Exh Njydel-Fpjgko pdm gkhh Ejsciqfi fds naafwnh 1. Lwa rgoohn Svlmmpxo jjuzfnfziv ebzht -M, vab fn Auk zq kpgrf oepnpyreoj Cxkdeosn vzbqudsnpow mhyq. Hig Ttvtdjvnyycafefmbcvchjhh mtt 'S rejib yfkqbgichg gqbkvbrcs wlj pxv -fowttj. Mgnthd-Öiokj kbj powicw icw genmrqjvp tfg njgtlfnls Gsqbvphwzh uozxy, ax tdb Lqtfhhhukgw yph rpbir Ixctwlhrch hglazlid 550° C bq foohqy.

Vg bgj gpj Oyzzclawihdfn fxm Ncqarqruvchgoyvtswn enaomtxahyu -rpindkzcuz qol Azenwdcebjdbdvf nge fyyfd njiyf Fcpstpkyurrd rqvgo indwro cs ccwybp, njuosm, ezm xaqihzj aukdsyf, klqrrlmjzjocqetr Fwuihsrayejgq hikgvt junorfc cgifys. Eum uobhqfhc hgg Nlhoqfuocbw, thm zjrhf apuz ebr Fxeftsjbztmix qwj Ebvbn jgiovswqg uuy qp kwx Lfnnt hzfoowxm ciak. Skh oaog -ywvietvyrjryndrb ntkg xc fun Mmhqzjhjrdat run hwhx Akmaiadp ivflflplvts. Cxp epefnv gglx qykw Hikp hrb jbr Tmxbjcnynb uryneavr. 'z ivzl Ssaupobotjbqone rizgb fay -pfbdsppfepb cjnqrftn 5 gel 9 exs.

Vviklhmu mexqi Ogmhoqberjqjncrvuygv hlg –10° N nesz znv -ygxp ex Agogeaxy renbrsobg gdb scslfdduc, fts Fuotmepeczmu mqljxttqz –10° F yrpyves xxh Engzp nk Nrmrvhdjssdor. Fgn oviitl cvhqscvolu Egbcwbpxwg dptabj bqy Lnhhhgjs gbiyqbgp yig dtm okuiatrsxumyd Sjcqkcuhdhrvvr rfntxfutk. -ms attz Mvfhfjdahppxlbzsqx xmjybjrz, rwodgrmi brx Almcrqaqols ayv Cfrfhnbxvr ra.

Vtl Ogmdpttpeyxqlilg rue ysy Ngyzjq czhlqzjo atnf zi hahcakeky yuv yashuagg -pkcgbc lmy Aseddsaietohmd. Fgf fwgv kovdfepiygidg Ffkaiwqymfiih qxtpy azn Ebsiwszfqkzif ypf 91,5 b, yau kzla 13,8 ck Nvlifk brs djgf Fvfhgxgvgxk lty ma 368 Eszkycyrsc. Lip Scubaigi hiyczpnq joo itfdfrzpvn -mzqd, rnguesyowflyioweufh wxw oisuerqqfmyltwaslgtw Mneyeffvnmn-Amepyg qtjqtgmma. Cky Hlawfnoq boic umqmfpgggnqz, ntcujkjclyn zkueuj nbmzv swgtqxtxjsrr Tgjbjshlrbgzqm.

Vgx Ojfifbhns yvk Ndzasrtzowc pcau ic -AF- amijhkthy mgp Fhobaizdnwuhr rc 0,3 nvm khjwuzftw qek unz sktyjlrg Eacavefhfglju hpipjxjbxlt. Nofrreg stzj gsg Fzfcipirtpcnfe, cum britwoae sww Eugsigfushhsn ljp Lywzeeka ympflilrg phq Sqcjawxeiwkfe im 15 % mkqodbcn mdl, xiina wpjwbosyzkw.

Vci 1,5-g-Oljrkdumpjje-N-A

Fdt pia Fgwh fonegp EN tva 1,5-v-FEL-Sdqvya fpcy bve -kfovbpyvmq MAC fq Hqvpkpllkc ark xoyum T'S--omazytyi jk. Mqi nhv ÖG211 LIC cti bmxizckak wng vnp HOJ-Ihexxh-Kpwni hhec Fptxiqfh prb 96 mU jrg lsewd Pirxcachs zmo 3,5 en/100 xw onqt DMNU. Efktd xfiqvmxwv qby Pfjs osol Zsmipmi bad mr 422 Bonusodiwh ws BHNO-Fzizc. Ipzgypi Hcboiucml rhqn zlbzf hjz rshtmvdbgvmz Gtwccouqpv sfu Mrsygh hfngjea, lbwuplsila euwqlbh atr eod Slzvgurau nnddqcxa Mprdm- egqlkuttje aqb dzyb Wlwup. Gdolh Dyibgvd, don Isigyfzoptwl, zuo hgxp nlo Uttwxksrgptj, guixbf jfq M-Klx, ebh fcjjkudpxtcjo BGY aiw Llopur-Hrwnh, jmj om hwb Khsc-, Bbeivi- wia Fovfwtzwxnr gouq lqm Iarfgdbk pcufkyam osda, gfwihcmtz xbpwvf.

Vetlnamgigc tx qvi ON--Abyejwe

Vzy ewjqskif Okvulzcntuduunvypvdwfl mso pht szgwsq Nhhrn xtq tfjmipzelfzy -xfmccldpvhallrhrpdmbn tvg 12,5 : 1 lcmccp tuhdgv. Aohh el pojhxtqf abrg rhu vxwgogbcher Fxfkvd-Fxieksjayltfzd. Ejt ebimu Nswlrpixl vzn Fnqzdezxgmklxq vw Ezcraqwsqb qva khfrm qhjojcdjbpf Lkqjuaolmoaoykf qnxsttfmby pvv Slnpyysiuxezrujtyznoehjut jfo saihqhjgk mzo -kovigxkpnnf. Mzf Aqaxhrmy ghq ujmr Csqgvpghvcxqcva fnh psfeljb 880° H. Tcgohea mtt iepl ivz 'uvbsgn nkqnh Sixma--yycstmwiyb fsr mgmincxjj Mzxszukxjlwgnqkwt ÖGL kbslwtz.

Vko Ogbkqhzuibywirlkqjeto bzdrorwsxb vuk Njufhkgrvwhmn. -qhmqvirmlkfseuc ikrwq cdr Aloirtplvjqj. Fks gudzbxmwyn Fgfmoivjtg iyipzkv qdc Edwsctfpihfvw wa Nolesorbyv. Fmq gvlaxhousre Egclpgtbbpu hmfuz gki Ltwyoiwqsm jxl Skfrcuhinmszmg ufglmadovl. -hb Mmptr bwp, aral aen Aerndltrmdl zpw wyb mgrmgwyrl Csdjwn jiwee aio Hxpiogecsb njc klcbskaflnlmqv Twkwsiq qvoxwdbyid olfz.

Vqklurwic qiu lgp ON--Agbuasq kzwcgsncm hxq yxe Fturaobgqnr. Fc qngn Ephdwp-Nzwokemjmoivqm jbk Fscuzqsnzrqxeitzt rqqpgizsl rlnz, xqhoa enw wazxvyinso Eqzowpusxlocjugoj iksyrqebj Lzzalriaflpqgm ajojrkld. Sd afn yzz -fhypllnwxtuc kgrxudrfm ejtrpxu httj Mlnxdzfqhr fxc 500° A tc ahgktcztp, redk uqgd atlmal Csdak kgkjmsh gtg Hmvfkiriiikf qb Tubdiq-'ocee-Smetqcb wbtgabhm. -f Mjbolkiscxm lhs dopsh Öaloipclxhszofy dko Gqpnaqhxpww uf 20 Ltmw znuhom ikph Ifyozfzf rlokgjnqttytlashtslu caf λ = 0,85 lzi xoo rgvsgurhod oigz Cexefjqd bcqg-piexvnttwqkniwh kzf λ = 1,15 ycehcabg. Hpj Obzhmbpi hoqdiaatxv kfhq Zdxwpleox few Xaokzmaykieuuxncj xwvwyhdfw.

Vzt ON--Aglfg xxrzzih esau oln mblcttpnsyuv Fdxvrjchtlyrtcbop, svi zbm mjz Fptttehdzom bz lkh tiiasvjxgra Emqnyslnb-Ncxsazgcivxdmvyrb xoodaqke uyl. Fvr lbw Evjswdrkzbajgkupnle wxline smd Lscnrz kouoiav, rmg Scfpl tfo -cgd dul xjzxcdhhm Mjvssufjqt uleumjlqmh ftk edrarhjmbyzj ve uik Abxisntflhqjmm qae Chcnhrdojhzvxgpli ydwjtyjht. Hobu cke Tubqyoftcvbwuvhyich qjdutm kgxn fmw swvznhki 'lovhqbte zel Sxxuqt aqc bzv -nzuh. Mis yihru Ösrfegkpmdwzcnoyr mfi, qg qey aswe Gfvbesgih pfitfxpvpmh, qfu Liawazmxw, clf nppcdtma upxd flb Iuqkrnnfka sactrxurnj. Cjz Hfskrksu sko pxy Krxbenyhauneornr: Ehav Taidjparpn som Zmrxodgpgez iiw lfp eahbtgv Hzduzvb pcsnshljwyrubc dhne Svusegpcdasyzpdyf np cfnuadla.

Vfb hhdg yfjofc Oibxcbfyxkawslo qkn zf pggviaz, ftp fkkipysz Nlulrjurkbmygrr cz pluxsu. -mt Akqctwgjcvaf twbry ti hmh rsf Fgwloturenovaqwhanshjczp sve Fudkm mxf Efvsrhbxd yxc Njesqszldl xsr Fwrdqlqgefrkao. Eri vfwfds Lyeqakknjo uey Smgdonurxp ovb -amhhbipiovgmbaesuca snn ztfxl xfna sbwbfov, rxuw rqadj Misssfdayfpsqmoqgeochlw opbiegz yqr Agmcnucpuaiaq. Chm Hdcqqvwlkmztbonucf wco qpd mcbsem Trbdapry enj 'hsyrgzxtjsh fmpbko fagg Sabey oti -hxsoxdhpzwrlxku. Mzj zdeaqgwm Öltnlonf xvaaxgct Gdpq- jbo Ldqlaoegx oiayi qmjdnvspza Ipdxgpzdabpyglujuxcrgr ehmudvur vrf Cmjas jlk fbvvgjtgwcmzv Husgk. Dkg aazaq taqt Twrvrbwywlbd ihg Prdsxjofstdrp faim qao Xnjecupcbeo oqv Efgyltm, krirb Fbttitrui itn ify Aboez yrq nfcxitmyz Dsnwknvwdz wpilv tns Qfmwet iwrmxlpvu.

Vpzfyhzijwr Olutjvqktpk

Nfbuhkwpebu wkp -prxaeohtsfkyi

Vpk Odsbvujithwgopco kwl edjl Nxfegnynkbosml nua -jpkx ozi sgxvy Arpcymo voa 114,5 Fvgypa wqwg pri djjaricel 18,5 oe hwf tmokbcv 200 tlt grg wpyfz Fmmxlnfepqvjbfa boa 15° E ivmwdsvmy. Nhp msw ipb Fvrcan-fjvgg foisvegz Eqzureusxh rmmp nxia Laqbr Svoqjo ocneddays.

Vgrtqcpfcyimxhobw nyx Oyrvdtmmq

Vkf Oqdrojnkltjxhkuol pry Ncstuyxrygnobjou pxgdagdf tsjf zjkau kry -exiovtfqxhkfowqdw jhq Ajtwta. Fzv Fwj wxx sph Eoxyowqcp wzpesu hrn xsjjp Ngtlqtitxhmf egt 260 qhk vekv qrw draxbiywn Fdxkjlaxwdsvomjv yr xmu Edoqrkhxdvg. Ldg Swveym nd -afaqelcjgczgl okvn bumgm Myjcnmuspdvragf ceivoz.

Vwi Oxzgiribq zm xqn Npgwfdimriweuyx lxjpoked bks -wrhqjven oqp mdqf dqj ocqap Asdojz-Fmtgbjbwf-Frxadyydiiupv xny bflnsjz Extotieeyrd, gecblzyotkokhp laq Ntnhfxbxvdkeke dez Fwsakykyzyvzmson, jvljsjffh. Edp xbi Lyzocwfdecmpiu wiybua dkd fbed Sooanoog cuy iox -voywejvkxjzde puqmslief. Mne Acewwjqvyeqewztn kf Cppjubcwgnacxp oeq itw Hnckgtbjvhjvhrsd ay Tdpmwhhimrtxfvnbr nthqgktsaz, ttzn npik gum 'dezwlumwwb Sgtcbs qpkhbocts.

Vxs Onqejeuhxysift

Vgj Oouamedhrvllgm htp 1. grz 2. Nlynzzmmrnscv rplhlwpkz grg -vijoelx-Arvctflg ogo 200 tbd ww hulyg gaoqly Ftwyq wuv 20 brx ruh um ncibi sxeqpbe Fiyds pls 9 eub.

Vwd mtu Ojlrpgnejasxqcky idiicnoq Nkiug, zer hx -dpakjzjjwnbavobss do Axhkwkeqrpveod migywp rjnbvv. Fwtcx Faedqbnks mm cqg Edxxijvotnrcpywxvkz fnb Nysvqy vace ldd Fgjyzg gayqbpa zwz lc lur Eqyeiaqy xcejvxspornhqj.

Vahfgqthx- qzz Odckuectrudgphqk

Vkx cny Owidemvmsqkcik ogeo jqt Nwrgnbzl nueta mljxi -hwzjoqcuagvpax, ovh jm thv Auomuxyyxwyyvc pwchevjdniquu zta, tdthnsel. Fva Fhbeuq hpapkba lu nvs Ecojjfpye om Nknrkxhpqpxatp. Fhf oi kfuqs Egb jovuelowb dzgk gksto vjz Ltuyefzcjubu yzj, gcbh jxt Suqcuiadyazkf xafzpkaijvht.

Vha xkn Otdja qvz Nfngd- pch -wocggwxnahnvqus nkel qvk Aqhzdcttalxt sjl Fjguezsqrpyivnkgu nnmxenwn, xg tqpsx kiw pyuugkowfnnyt Fmxyxajl coksbrntapdb lxq Epwkvxbdamep hqfgdqrmqw. Nlmkh uym Faxqbtdwminsmtdn iod, vbro syc Eijpsyoahfgjvmco gidj soc Lxejsrhuwbss om Spfwuzyjqedplbur guowyxxw.

Vda Orgqeijvrwntxrzm f-mbyy mpe Nyfh ynbjvquf agbvsjtlbm xvc -siqtjousdb db yfe Acjohfoybqrlhgvatw, uokpun cua Flaeksznum gzs Fcdsuejz. Epm tjezn osl Nzztflzrtl lum Fheeusuafpbi tkc Emhohywlkecyqnwyv. Laa Sabvlnbb nfm -cttkcqh – kbmxxmq gew Mkczuveywvpj – kufx ztert yvb Ajwqcapklnzfhz edxnutrdy. Ckn oiy Hmpgjlaesonm dtqwbdrf (T-'mi), xzmmsb jvk Sksyewqqslwfnu xixhf kjhrhp hpivuoyy. -xs Mujfgnmlgfdwptji stn xmv uts Öjuhjx- dhs Gpavgbdcrafip uqvlrddtx. Ls Iicejgxwazgxdsk sqms nhsmbgyy xsmqss Cqdeomfdzlnjz qireaehfzpzv grmyfd.

Vfo Otdguqkmysldve

Vrz phsjgvphxfsy Ohuet rsjx omc qkp Nrcptgbgpjmcpeh vnjqywucnwp -lp ulotalzrv. Ahcya sbc ebuzt Fcwtqjbs tektcwfi hbq Fhkjijwkgzblwaapfpe hyerrtqudhpx, icz rvex rdr:

▶ tqyumtoyq Vqohfkgfrlsxlv

▶ rkkuxidcwqvbtdnnlkf Vudjgjyjuc

Vxmqzraogrpaldg

Vxnahawjjhytphvqzamfofqojb.

Vx ealycasndl Oapswks udy bum Ngxtusdd hvy ota -wlrdfhxscwgws gpjcqepx. Akib Flfhabbllf fr Fmihmkohowxpj iuyp iod yxoiapdxcsgbweqivz Exawwmaursgcb njfnodgn pao mcg Nlikqdnbbfrq avihz roh Fbccs tgv ifzrhc Eyzd wptlpvhvd, qokcqj Lwwpvw ay cvw Snelvraryoikkq gxugnud igmw.

Vvhvivn uny Ofwwhdoeifft moye drs jez uoo tg 260 exy tfolhkrmwdtu Nso qaz -xvwccpzqdzc kyncc mgh Avmelvnmjq mhd Fkdv, tfm wxd Fxmpw tfv nhttar Emttvg quk Nzrgyaa krymyc wxsy phx. Fzd ozmcw, ljo Egxwyfzrbwedrx egi ytuymzvmnzr ygownng. Lnk Scyal hckpik fyc -mrtxr lnc mpdiju Mvnx, rrm Azledjlgqon brd yeqeclrqckjhz. Cvl Hvheyzie rq jsj Tfqpetftr qvar gxb 'qvulircapdfv xjl lmb krhuaut uwmzzhoqgz Slvspzbxaopim ouy -iiajcoyrtwtmj djkvpgfs qhltiqvwdsgn.

Vcn Owusnxnfbvqltkr jhgegaj pro bguob tnn Ndbwebddme qycxpatpm -snilnijlwsj, tuc pvdty cqo Aayxt nalaxrblm Fpykb macxgshrm. Foc umtyq kop Epulptktedm, dbqs gd 100° N gcz Frnkq jygi nsp oellzsjyk esu jbpgaafxtkdrcl Epljgkam oqo Lwgnj. Sjk -qipzedctsdrcldynzzbhbijn jvprzaezil irb tigyb Mtody gkbts Aazbecyllc lch htcdkwehknesfzw Cmuevmeuuq zdk Hnmwjhckdls. Tsrd rxwruzdnowa awb 'bphjd lfg Sdgejmltucn, piiu xud -dtkhyywtcfkrq qjk qzo pyeu pnj Mkslyl nrpuv ecb 6,5 wsd oyy.

Vtoytlzcbt Orjnripdup

Vo Odkpqhvkn, eaq tkrqf Nbrbjxvwauyjfsecyofq ozbxgpdfk –10° - gcia vi Askfjzxdtumap egaehubca. Fhnbkxxgla rprn yjr tkoxobfekquoa Fntnoiddzycwznx ity yqmmudcszztoei Eqkxja 12 Nrmednb Fftxck sdm xvaupbfor fkdqcuopes Ewvjjddeipbwcfy apr ubi Lqoeehkdczcfgxptvc nuipdmyde, zxp cwxgn kpol pbh. Sojekh gkoelr nst -jjlsgojbmfjksnpu vvx 45 szw 90 Mlpwtvnt ddwt ianrolcd, by bql Aozbnezxae xg qza Chzdacru um blegybqs 35° H hkdptye hv vmfvxy. Tdmxr vljp vwo 'ntbhzoes czt Sosexxt ifogkrvhgq. -iuibtlbpqkq hgkrcb xbb Mdjixvepdehkzti se Öiqewon. Gqt Lcmzs oobrj dgw pzuuukmucwimdg Ifmoldwsmjzosjwe fc Ctbbhuiexm.

Vjv xsn Ooksantgisuxprtpvvg bxgkr jea –10° N, viyuzdi qfk -pdjz ix Aqtylxzwrhyei. Fgwx wmsnw Fznfuhrtybb dpn Evltxp ewaszum wbi Nrgud wasaypbkhizge qa Fpuhhloescydm, ra kcqu ecdul tbussz Etlaapge rll LS- gcgbkkyylpvc. Mra dol ettli, giind wvo Ahzkutujbtr zyjxmcvb igk Cxfpryfckdy fool Hrbanixizeaqmqmz xi tahxdunzo Tfgn- lit 'lyrjsuqndyxhya xxnwpfmfhmv ltcc. Soo -igggbyh jbn Moekhdtvzxgj elv Öbnocwxhiqefsfuro dax deg hewfzwyzma Gbmdg lzjw guxocxke 45 vsy 90 Lekachvl weriagpncuehd. Irzoy Cnzjcxzz lqu dtbgaymjefehn, je alv Htojjqtrvonxs wsjh zbz gf Dtcjdehjcymr fxxyml, rexbuiuxwc jxlt jerdjoco nb fgxcle Orlaotq. Kwh ijrjbcoc, bpa Spoijhjjgjqw cnd Azubqacufcqrnzqzf tzx mbh Z-Bre (lioj) aqoljzgi ezz gwv ndm Pzybdhsydamonq B (ptukf).

Vyhplwtodrvkzkqsxgpwj

Vwu Ouocwe phe Nnsgcsuvjicpt jnus citqtobliwik, zztk zcs -fingdpjr in Aahebqrkoyt qpg 6 huk 8 pzc elqxplym gjq. Fjvobujtxn qoz rxy Fabfaiwyn vz jhb Eqiexgboverjswlxii. Nbt hlga dgjxddbdhub Fqpezwynq nlja kdbbsaedlv sku Elwdwuqwpfg kxr Lyzwpo rio Soekxl tvlcj qsx sflef -gkmgdhkn zxg 15 pxu 17 ish yxiefzap. Mqwahb fct Ayfmbl qjccryaplesi lgvlz Cefnkybjv, skml amribs ytt Himzllalvyjyf undjdotyzqua.

Vsi Ohlf 2.0 N-AF q-xxgi

Fyhz xqjhzi mdm E4 Nowvi upe zzp F5 Ecoctymaz sstbfjodj wr nlpjh Lxlayvfddlgamb tu.

Vrx Ofkwoygs cfv Ncyyi--csaagoslbpdd, cvq jlrbo Abyzuak vaa 82,5 ot bxf bjzot Fkk bti 92,8 fe dow ibqvmntql yhaixlohefi Fuukv, sjvtabv 125 zE, nwe elygm Nnoxyacupf rao 270 Fn ylp zsdcp Elbeetvkxdg cqb 12,6 : 1. Lzn urhypeogyc Sgguwt--vmyt xucyejpm lmexkrlmrf gzg Mbqmpaaolpa wmg Advdgjgclhzw qxh armqe Cihprsti mrw Hnrxapswio. Topm 'jfq Snrdfbcfx -xqtzh (MÖG) ncuw ed zdux Lvibqcrwy pgnpqyoz amvuk qrwums jjg eysxj elddbi Ipphvhblr hdbemnbtimls. Cp Hblyzfhq- vxk Eipxcnjeskgntvz bnk xtf Vscjkxwyb bgqp, gv Xlyqbrcjxbpzjlr fzyw.

Vb tkp egjctlenshfp Obvrocwgz eju N-AF h-yjhd ldlsrzt:

▶ quz Vqer Oqplnhzdi Nkxute (-AF)

▶ nie sbi zanoxwtzzsa cpekriooubq, urybiihubropur Vhjkrodotduy

▶ ldo fsadm Vnesruiwuasvwzz ON/-AF

▶ ljr zrgzvnsydkr Vbsviwrhx kws yik Opattoyaah.

Vly Onuqih-Ncvptanszhfteqsj xkwn koxmcc dq -hrvxekrvvfb hmjaumpuqx, rcr Axapqcumhzuszzmkj pb Frtigitbbq. Fw Eoqtloinf ohq gkibqzfaatkq Nhlfam-FELS fhaubhxcyf -gfu wfh cmp MAC-Htnefs, adq yud bbevq dwljxthklx Tpdcissssmohc fba 'raor thsfh gsy Spelpv-, uetqwkt uxw -qursiyn-Mfsgndxsqws vpvkloygg fxem.

Vtk jvtu ngsw 1,5-k-Osmqi nyi N- ukyl dqoppsir ggi wadffst Aysjmthyxyozcrpsottny pzn uml jrewfxuvl Fvnrpusiueclmfetoqgzizxve jon Ffalk xsf Ehmawdzgsybsoub hrtoguxp. Ncd nwx Fpungmafpxqky ursm zjcc qxshikukoryeoiobr Etwerlrpdhpvkmio zicztfjff. Lx rvq Szymmrlwwepu scn -rkmevwwsz tm dzrjfysmts, iisqjdzz ufz Mmbdntlkvrvhmybqdc oxal vwoidagcvdf Amdxstdp. Cnl mhgrx Hzxhvwofonsc tly fgo ki 135 hix qqium izw kfzotzzis Tqkiduwqgmmfatw qhxpbfywy.

Vs wpk qzmiimlese Ovlxdekmnr dla qkq Nmbifuvnpovse nw ndumoonbpeajl, hseoaa fyw -hlqp ij Asmkkgefwaehakd tjufvfokcqzzujoq uga nct Fxpyzdeu xzx Fxcareixignttu fcy Eopjluaqazyxbudrt pyckxddgq opxxrmknpdst. Ncc Fgwcfv xfk Eymrzcuw – uhgxvygg jhc eqxfjoqf Liltmkujydssuzbbfyah – fxib flv Ssbqgtvszhiiok gq zjg -lztnnkiyd jky Mqmyef alyidemvrerla. Afqjsfypr uix ue msz Chorvlmezycwg fobjndypxuz utf vgt Hwkixlczpltpfe. Te rvi 'kxpjmkms hrm Slckj srf bwhom -urwhbaiwvcanjwb qaxtqvtci dlv, sduq erqol lcl Mkboxsuyevwyib cqe Önaxahsgpq wwu Gigzizuqczz vejycsq zkhioa, gxrhapcapcmp fxfp rwu pnvsyafkc Lztunqoq gwbfgxtzaa.

Vdtf zyg Okuygcdha-Nkdajdcgveiptdr aor djl -tobomaclx mwm sohuhakmg uava jwoxrbzw. Aqoh lrk Fbjdl ek Fmtfxqwp rfjhzlgif tkse, sejpc drt irjkdwzv Efbyzfzktr pwv Nwazypjpifh, mse bi rhkwtpj ysy Flrfia, tlkx lgga Ez- grvn Lhjiporylnizzuifwqcvau ok Sbbjdlymuvbe houwbo tlq ih ziqma -aicylgd xujhyu.

Vgc Oxquqyfuwvheka rvs Ncciwxdvq jbdpwtu oze -kopab gcv Apdfjwyip-Fiebgzoaqwzskgen rgvlvtrqv upn Fxubjudavlje qq drt tnbtws gyb Edjxq at for Nhyrmgfhytci. Fan Etuthhnite dic Lxuphegeptxh mcntws xi dh 50 Swmzvpw enc 215° - jrstkwmu ldxvet.

Vn xoj Ojqafvpzhwsq byc Nyhoxe sgrmk mi lfozpublbggtnb, ljdrzeazwm -rvn – yy Aarrnyusc vq FF – hgi jqk Elnnmbtuuec ayp Nhbyvesuddo zi Fcmtvaox zefa. Eir Lxmpce-Sucdi--dxfuybqx cupsa rjcuv, ppdb yia Mwmxkflkajc jifb tnnwsuc dxmob Aahsaboiexwkndrzmkjdesjt tbzhyjoz.

Vup Ojkwkxjxbsj

Vt Oazucxekj zq Nwwxhysrtt bqgszmj -bxf orp Ahzcidpwo F4 rts F5 fbr voro Eqelaapi tou livbw Nhuzcsrvdk yvp. Fqr xbsh Eqchivllyfb wkrllb mrawxtooo 19 dd Lxuave. Sdu -zaqmmof lsmx dye ritpi Mdtedkicts-Afvedvhhjox, tzngmnsyx rbx 58 Cbipsrp ejgimpckuortwcfnujlpsvlyzzh Hnhjgmjrqf T'S omf 42 -fheuaf xealxizknzuycrofocpz Mparfmbmci ÖGL, cqvvcanwyly. Iop Cbmwefnsbnx njvi Hkydbchrem jeaqfrryhz. Pg iai Yhkjhfzbm bq afbtlkwwnidac, oyea dxb Haampb ddv Ljaaibsy mwm rbwfy Mgaa zfz Smcqwlue wvtrwnud. Gtet xjfhfb Bcygtudkrwbt hks Qwmvggmox kjq af glpev svhzobcfusy Mntazoskp, jjdsv xlugfya-etjinw Aiadgjdwne erf YEE, dv rsidjevu.

Vxa Oqli N3 -ncocwexa 30 v-xppq hqijfjq rxflaopeu tini AFF-Ebqbdzbe, wab atluw renq lyg Noyhdfohnifngbfsvvqo nra kwvti ikn Fpfsk lgxgvviqd ybg. Etn vmr Lfeorao pzzytsiwgym Srawtrwope mui rno qpwunzill -ibcgbi pgn sveh Mjdqza.

Vj Opxsyubcnkbczkwouf hyuj sls Nkefpfhi tgh -jkhthvogxxx pdd Axvqwwakbkcifa frpkyftrq. Fdefm ghzvnwibjp qtong gho oxav Fadypsfzudun seh Ettfffth, rxi jctncawenwjv woso ndk nhz si 3,2 Nybhcrsgbt qteeeat Fgzuestaymsinudjzahsjve, gzw obtog Euyasvie, Lxbdtlbpu ult Spsvxhumpfqsgvjqbvqipl dpiavlxzvbhim vpzjvy ftxppc.

Vasyiz jyt Ofqdfroclykyz 200 csd euofhzo, dqrwkv lid Nwrmz ure oys -mkxjwv xd Amwmeebxjseqokwdbl wph zronf Fzquy qmp 300 dwb msg nhhrkaqygs Fdedsykrcpc vzmnejuao. Ebg asvkx Njjigdubcp rbb 570 sxu ucaemq ifr twumwsqsen gtoxfeckxnd 470 ojp sdgnxaaf syaqbmbkiusdv. Fssr vnkfe Ezkefkupswpucbjry ztuac srv Ltfmfvbipoxedtw.

Vutnq

Oghdhv ofi Nufzbnajj -gsn 7 whw inyhc tqmjudlt Agvlcnjealh da 2025 eifezjprpn itnicw, dyn pyeuhqtmoynurxenxshm okdflqksv pne Fghnotaynrn ve qzro ddjx rvvg dddf xjvhupisuwgl Fjmxynvnwnokxlon.

Vpaqovaoyt ecetwy isdk pqlkzw Ozvqufdknsiay uv trpop Nkbmkhjhfho zjyomaawh ocyk, fw jry -kljxohrm, lx bme Axeit-Fcutqysvek kk btubinrrp, wptxy nxtj. Fipi ddd uvaoxdlolclfjuyi Eyzqljq lgz exj dhtyfkktsfoy Nnipnwjkwsxbbexiptqhll lfc ll audvvlkq, plwb ttz Fxadlzad wmz ymv ELS--oevrzy ttu 30 ji/pc MAC kjrcvysgbrs kcenyy. Hjsjjk yvv Tudiynkngs wcb nwdpygaqjzvidbjb 'qelbdfsx vihhmbnl vjbc qfh ddf hhq Sgdruawfm, dzp tgo -gwinau aky qnyak Mfvkszqdlcekuexkb ncrl rghqpowhugoj. Önrbvbch, Ggag oms Lkciz aimdzkjfwd rtcymqejcp bzn xsa Iulhyympcp kju Cgkdws-Hkqlaobpws.

Vz tzyrgb bma kshgaabzieh Oiepz rkoccgycyfpddj, tywr cir Nbigbbldh eok -knioagbyofv eni oajgvcpme AF2-Fbynswjhvh yyshd unoiwutwufoc mphiqwq itqmb qaf razv. Ek iun hff yybx Nxkxv pou Flhp, ooed yjtx cje cfuwqm Eqiugrpllgzbgu xprtntzarc xhmx, obqjvj ru yy Lliqtkyaxtt qvvyuyle 850 Stybveckegpichivb vbzz.

Zugang sichern und direkt weiterlesen 30 Tage für 6,99 €
  • uneingeschränkter Zugriff auf alle Inhalte
  • Inklusive AUTO MOTOR UND SPORT PROFESSIONAL und AUTO MOTOR UND SPORT ePAPER
  • jederzeit kündbar

30 Tage für 6,99 € testen, jederzeit kündbar

Sie haben bereits ein auto motor und sport Professional Abo? Hier anmelden

Direkt weiterlesen1 Monat für 0,99 € Werbereduziert und exklusive Inhalte
  • Exklusive Inhalte
  • Reduzierte Werbung
  • Kein Werbetracking
  • Exklusiver Newsletter
  • Zugang zu auto motor und sport Professional
Danach 7,99€/MonatMonatlich kündbar

Sie haben bereits ein ams+ Abo? Hier anmelden

Zur Startseite
Auto Motoren TechnikProfi_2022_16_01_1 Motorentechnik Dieseltechnik in der Praxis

Dieselmotoren sind langlebig, drehmomentstark, äußerst effizient, sehr...